EMPTYで開始タグだけを使う要素 = 空要素 (素の SGML)
Use of empty elements within XML instance documents is a source of controversy for a variety of reasons. An empty element does not simply represent data that is missing. It may express data that is not applicable for some reason, trigger the expression of an attribute, denote all possible values instead of just one, mark the end of a series of data, or appear as a result of an error in XML file generation. Conversely, missing data elements can also have meaning — data not provided by a trading partner. In information exchange environments, different trading partners may allow, require, or ban empty elements. UBL has determined that empty elements do not provide the level of assurance necessary for business information exchanges and therefore will not be used.