HTMLの歴史

HTMLの歴史

HTML の仕様の変遷

[96]

                               GMLguide
                                  ↓
                               SGMLguid
                                  ↓
                             TimBL の構想
                                (89/3)
                                  ↓
                                 HTML
                         (WorldWideWeb 90/11)
             [www-talk]           |
              (91/9-)             |
                                  +------------------------+
                                  |                        ↓
                                  |                       HTML+
                                  |                       (92)
                                  ↓     [ietf-iiir]       |
                               HTML 1.0                    |
                              (I-D 93/6)                   |
                                  |                        v
                                  |                     (ED 93/11)
                                  |   <map>                |
                                  |  (I-D 94/2)            v
                                  |    |              (presentation @
                                  |    |                WWW94 94/5)
                                  v    |                   |
              [ietf-html] ?HTML 2.0    |                   |
              (94/7-96/9) ?(draft 94/7)|                   |
                                  |    |                   |
                                  v    |                   |
                            HTML 2.0   | type=file         ↓
                            (I-D 94/11)| (I-D 94/11)     HTML 3.0
       [W3C]                     | |   |    ||          (I-D 95/5)
       (94-)                     | |   |    |+-----------^^^----→  HTML 2.x  LiveScript
                                 | +---^----^------------^^^----→ (I-D 95/8) (beta 95/6)
                    <table> ←---^-----^----^------------+||           |         |
                   (I-D 95/7)    |    ↓    |   frame     ||          ↓         | [DCMI]
                       |         |(I-D 95/8)|  proposal   ||        HTML 2.1     |  (95)
                       |         | |        |   (95/9)    ||       (I-D 95/9)    |
                       |         | |        |     cda     ||          |          |
   MHTML    <style>    |        ↓ |        ↓ (I-D 95/11)||          ↓         | <resource>
(I-D 95/11) (I-D 95/11)|(RFC 95/11)|    (RFC 95/11)       ||       HTML 2.x     ↓ (ED 95/11)
 |           |         |       |   |         |            |↓     (I-D 95/11)  JS 1.0
 |           |         |       |   |         | <insert>   |relrev     |<meta>  (95/12)
 |           |         |       |   |         |(I-D 95/12)↓(I-D 95/12)|(I-D 95/12)|
 | [HTML ERB]| <script>|       |   |         |         icon           ||          | 
 | (96/3-97) |(WD 96/1)|       |   |         |      (WD 96/1)         ||          | 
 |           |      |  |       |   |         |<object>  |             ||  shtml   | 
 | text/html |      |  |       |   |     form|(WD 96/2) |             ||(I-D 96/2)| [SC18/WG8]
 | (WD 96/3) |      |  |       |   |(WD 96/3)| |        |             ||    |     |   (-97)
 | +---------^------^--^-----<-+   |        || |        |    formfill ||    |     |  
 | |         |      | ↓       |   |        || |        |   (WD 96/4) ||    |     | ISO-HTML
 | |         |      |(RFC 96/5)|   |        || |        |             ||    |     | (NP 96/5)
 | | lexical |      || |       |   |        || |        |             ||    |     |    
 | |(WD 96/6)|      || |       |   |        || |        |             ||    |     |    
 | |         |Cougar|| |       |   |        || |       ↓   type=onoff||    |     |    
 |↓         |(96/7)|| |       |   |        || |  (WD 96/7) (I-D 96/7)||    |     |    
 |NCALS-HTML |     ||| |       |   ↓       || |          ruby=""     ||    |     |    
 |2.0 (96/8) |     ||| |       |(RFC 96/8)  || |        (I-D 96/8)    ||    |     |    
 |         | |     ||| ↓     ↓    |       || |           |          ||    |     |    
 |         | |     ||| HTML 3.2 ←--+       || |           |          ||    |     |    
 |         | |     ||| (WD 96/9) ←---------^+ |           |       +--+|    |    ↓    
 |         | |     |||     |                |  |           |      ↓  ||    |    1.1   
 |         | |     |||     |       imagemap |  |bulletin   | entities ||    |  (96/10) 
 |[HTML WG]| |     |||     |     (WD 96/11) |  |(I-D 96/11)|(WD 96/11)||[CSS|[DOM |    
 |  (97)   | |     |||    ↓                |  |           ||        ↓| WG]| WG] |    
 |         | |     |||(REC 97/1)            |  |           ||(RFC 97/1)|(97)|(97) |    
 |         | |     |||     ||               |  |           ||    |  |  |    |     |    
 |         | |     |||     |+---------------^--^-----------^^----|--+--^----^-----^---+
 |         | |     |||     |                |  |          ↓|    |     |    |     |  ↓
 |         | |     |||     |                |  |  (I-D 97/2)|    |     |    |     | ISO-HTML
↓         | |     |||     |         frame  |  |htmllink    |    |    ↓    |     | (CD 97/3)
(RFC 97/3) | ↓    |||     |       (WD 97/3)|  |(WD 97/3)   |    |(I-D 97/3)|     +->ES | [WG4]
 |         |HTML+SS|||     |            |   |  |  |         |    |          |     | (97)| (97-
 |         |(Note  |||     |            |   |  |  |         |    |          |     |     |98/11)
 |         | 97/4) |||     |            |   |  |  |         |    |   <link> |  +--+--+  |
 |         | |     |||     |            |   |  |  |         |    |(I-D 97/5)| ↓    ↓  |
 |         | |     |||    ↓            |   |  |  |         |    |          |1.2    IE4 |
 |         | +-----++→ HTML 4.0 ←-----+---+--+--+---------+----+          |(97) (97/7)|
 |         |            (WD 97/7)                                           ||     ↓   |
 |         |               |                      link           fine-trans ||    DOM1  |
 |         |               ↓                 (Note 97/8)        (I-D 97/9) ||(WD 97/10)|
 |         |            (REC 97/12) ----------------------------------------^^----^---->+
 |         |                |                                  device-upload|↓   |     |
 |         |                |                                    (I-D 97/12)|1.3  |     |
↓         +--------+       |                threading     voice           |||    |     |
(I-D 98/1)          |       |               (Note 98/1) (Note 98/1)     +--^^+    |     |
 |        CHTML     |       |                                           |  ||     |     |
 |     (Note 98/2)  ↓      |                                           |  ||     |     |
 |        |    |   (98/3)   ↓                                          |  ||     |     |
 |        |    |+------ (REC 98/4)                                      |  ||     |     |
 |        |    || [HTML WG] |    |           Hebrew      HTML+TIME      |  ||     |     |
 |        |    ||(98/8-07/3)|    |          (SI 98/8)   (Note 98/9)     |  ||    ↓     | [SC34
 |        |    ||           |    |                           |          |  ||(REC 98/10)| /WG3]
 |        |    ||           |    ↓                          |          |  |||   |      |(98/11)
 |        |    ||           |    Voyager            <ruby>   |          |  |||   |      |
 |        |    ||           |    (WD 98/12)      (WD 98/12)  |    1.4 <-+  |||   |      |
 |        |    ||           |          ↓                |   |    (99)     |||   |      |
 |        |    ||           |        XHTML 1.0           |   |   UAAuth    |||   |      |
 |        |   ↓↓          |        (WD 99/2)           |   |  (Note 99/2)|||  ↓      |
↓        | HTML4 Mobile    |          |    ↓           |   |             |||  DOM2    |
(RFC 99/3)| (Note 99/3)     |          | XHTML M12N      |   |             |||(WD 99/3) | 
          |     +-----------^----------^- (WD 99/4)      |   |            ↓||    |     |
         ↓     |           ↓         |    |  ↓        |   |   (Note 99/7)||    |     |
    iモード     | text/html HTML 4.01  |    | XHTML 1.1  |   |             ↓|    |     |
   1.0 (99)    ↓(I-D 99/9) (PR 99/8)  |    | (WD 99/9)  |   |     (RFC 99/8)|   ↓     |
   ↓     XHTML Basic  |      ↓       |    |       |    |   | XHTML Events  | DOM2HTML |
 2.0 (99) (WD 99/12)   |  (REC 99/12) -^-+  |       |    |   |  (WD 99/12)   |(CR 99/12)|
   |         |        ↓              ↓ |  |       |    |   ↓     |       ↓    |    ↓
   |         |   (RFC 00/1)   (REC 00/1) |  |       |    |HTML+SMIL |     DOM1SE  |    FE
   |         |     application      |    |  |       |    |(WD 00/2) |    (WD 00/9)| (IS 00/5)
   |         ↓     /xhtml+xml      |    |  |       |    |        | | JDCM        |     |
   |      (REC 00/12) (I-D 00/12)   |    |  ↓      |    |        | | (JIS 00)    |     |
   |        | [WAP]|   |            |    |(REC 01/4)|    |        | |             |     |
   |        |      |   |            |    ||  |      ↓  ↓        | ↓            |     |
   ↓       |      |   |            |    ||  |(REC 01/5)(REC 01/5)| (WD 01/6)     |     |
 3.0 (01)   ↓     |   |            |    ||  |      |             | |             |     |
   |      XHTML-MP |   |            |    +^--^------^-------------^-^-------------^---->+
   |    1.0 (01/10)|   |            |    ||  |      |             | |  X+V 1.0    |     |
   |          |    |   |            |    ||  |      |             | | (Note 01/12)|     |
   |          |    |  ↓            |    ||+-^------+            ↓ |         |   |    ↓
   |          |    |(RFC 02/1)      |    ||| |           XHTML+SMIL |         |   |    TC1
   |          |    |                |    ||| |          (Note 02/1) |         |   |  (02/1)
   |          |    |      XHTML MT  |    ||| | XHTML+MathML+SVG     |         |   |     |
   |          |    |[PWG](Note 02/4)|    ||| | (WD 02/4)            |         |   |     |
   |          |    |XHTML|          |    ||| |   |                  |         |   |     |
   |    [OMA] |    |Print|          |    ||| |   |  augmeta         |         |   |     |
   |   (02/6) |    |(WD  |          |    ||| |   | (WD 02/5)        |         |   |     |
   ↓         |    |02/5)|         ↓  ↓↓↓|   |                  |         |   |     |
 4.0 (02)     |    |  |  |     1.0 SE  XHTML |   ↓    ->XFrames    |         |   |     |
  |   |       |    |  | ↓  (REC 02/8)  2.0  |(WD 02/8)  (WD 02)    |        ↓   ↓    |
  |   ↓      |    |  |(Note 02/8)  (WD 02/8)|                      |  1.1 (03/1)(REC  ↓
  ↓  i-XHTML |    |  |     [RDF in    |     |                      |         |  03/1) SE
 5.0  1.0 (03)|    |  |     XHTML TF]  |     |         ->XForms 1.0 +->XEvents|     (IS 03/6)
 (03) |       |    |  |     (03/5)     |     |          (REC 03/10)(REC 03/10)|
  | | |       |    |  |                |    ↓     Web Forms 2.0             ↓
  | | |       |    |  |                |  1.0 SE    (WD 03/12)         1.2 (04/3)
  | | |       |    |  |                |(WD 04/02)    |                 |
  | | |       |    |  |      +---------+     |        | [WHATWG]        |  [microformats]
  | | |       |    |  |      |         |     |        | (04/6-)         |  (04-)
  | | |       |    |  |      |         |     |        |   Web           |
  | | |       |    |  |      |         |     |        |Applications Web |
  | | |       |    |  |      |         |     |        | Markup  Controls|
  | | |       |    |  |      |         |     |        |Language   1.0   |
  | | |       |    |  |      |         |     |        |(WD 04/6) (WD    |
  | | |       |    |  |      |         |     |        |    |     04/6)  |
  | | |       |    |  |      |         |     |        |    v       |    |
  | | |       |    |  |      |         |     |        |   Web      |    |
  | | |       |    |  |      |         |     |        |Applications|    |
  | | |       |    |  |      |         |     |        | 1.0 (WD    |    |
  | | |       |    |  |      |         |     |        |  04/09)    |    |
  | | |       |    |  |      v         |     |        |    |       v    |
  | ↓↓     ↓    |  |     RDF/A      |     |        |    |      (WD   |
  | 1.1      1.0   |  |     (ED 04/10) |     |        |    |     04/11) |
 ↓  ↓    (04/12) |  |      |         |     |        |    |            |
 6.0 2.0      |    |  |      |         |     |       ↓    |            |      [CDF WG]
  |   |       |    |  |      |         |     | (SUBM 05/4) |           ↓      (05)
  |   |       |    |  |      |         |     |          |  |          Mobile 1.2 (05/9)
  |   |       |    |  |      |         |     |          |  | [Web API WG]     [WAF WG]
  |   |       |    |  |      |         |    ↓          |  | (05/11)          (05/11)
  |   |       |    |  |      |         |     1.1        |  |
  |   |       |    |  |      |         |     (PR 06/2)  |  |
  |   |       |    |  |      |         |            |   |  | -> XMLHttpRequest 1.0
  |   |      ↓    |  |      ↓        |            |   |  |    (WD 06)
  |   |    1.1 (06)↓ |      RDFa      |            |   |  | -> Window 1.0
  |   |           1.1 |      (ED 06/5) |            |   |  |    (WD 06)
  |   |      (WD 06/6)|              | |            |   |  |
  |   |          |    |              | +→ role=""  |   |  |
  |   | Softbank |    |              | |  (WD 06/7) |   |  |
 ↓  ↓ HTMLXHTML|    ↓             | |      |     |   v  |
 7.0 2.1 2.0 2.0 |  (REC 06/9)       | |      |     | (WD  |
 (06/10) (06/10) |                   | |      |     |06/10)|
                 | XForms-Tiny       | |      |     |   |  |
                 | (ED 06/11)        | |      |     |   |  |
       [Forms WG]|     |  [XHTML2 WG]| |      |     |   |  | [HTML WG]        [HCG]
        (07/3-)  |     |      (07/3-)| |      |     |   |  |  (07/3-)        (07/3-)
                 |     | CURIE 1.0 <-+ |      |     |   |  |
                 |     | (WD 07/3)   | |      |     |   |  |
                 |     v         |   | |      |     |   |  |
                 |  XForms       |   | |      |     |   |  |
                 |Transitional   |   | |      |     |   |  |
                 |    (ED 07/3)  |   | |      |     |   |  |
                 |               |   | |      |     |   |  |
                 |               |   | |      |     |   |  v
                 |               |   | |      |     |   | HTML5
                 |               |   | |      |     |   |(WD 07/5)
                 |               |   | |      |     |   |  |
                 |               |   | +--+   |     |   |  |
                 |               |   | |  |   |     |   |  |
                 |               |   | |  v   |     |   |  |
                 |               |   | |access|     |   |  |
                 |               |   | |(ED   |     |   |  |
                 |               |   | | 07/6)|     |   |  |
                 |               |   | |  |   |     |   |  |
                 |               |   | |  |   |     |   |  |
                 |               |   | |  |   |     |   |  *                    2007/10
                 |               |   | |  |   |     |   |  |
               (WD)           (WD)(ED)(WD)(ED)(WD)(WD) (WD)(WD)

[97] 仕様書の一覧が仕様書の項にあります。

[87] この後は綺麗に流れて欲しいな・・・。

[88] >>87 と言ってるそばから HTML 5 のカウンター・パンチw

区分

[1] HTML の歴史区分の1つの提案:

  1. 草創期: HTML の誕生 (1990)〜
  2. カンブリア紀: img の登場 (1993)〜
  3. ブラウザ戦争時代: WinIE 3.0 の出荷 (1996)〜
  4. 失われた5年間: WinIE 5.5 の出荷 (2000)〜
  5. 新時代 (仮): W3C Workshop on CDF & Web応用 (2004)〜

[2] なにをもって時代が変わったというのはむずかしい (しあまりこだわっても意味がない)。

ブラウザ戦争のはじまりを WinIE 3.0 とみるより Windows 95 (1995) のほうがいいかもしれないし、 Netscape Navigator 2.0 (1995) かもしれないし、 Netscape Navigator 1.1 (1994) かもしれない。 終わりは WinIE 5.5 よりも WinIE 5.0 (1998 あるいは 1999) とか NetscapeAOL による買収 (1998) かもしれない。

img は後世から見ればエポック・メイキングに見えるけど、 その前後で状況が様変わりしたかといえば、そうでもない (変化はもっと前から始まっていた)。

W3C Workshop (2004) は一つの契機だけど、1週間後の WHATWG 登場 (2004) とか、 Ajax (2005) とかのほうがインパクトはあるかも。

メモ

[92] Early History of HTML - 1990 to 1992 <http://infomesh.net/html/history/early/>

Webで調べるだけでわかる情報ばかりなのにあまり知られていないし、 まとめてあるのを見たのもここが初めてなのはなぜ? (名無しさん 2006-02-01 07:20:34 +00:00)

[93] W3C HTMLの開発コード名:

  1. Wilbur : HTML 3.2
  2. Cougar : HTML 4
  3. Voyager : XHTML 1

[94] Web Architecture and Quality: closing the loop - W3C QA Weblog <http://www.w3.org/QA/2006/10/arch_qa_loop.html> (名無しさん 2006-10-12 11:59:25 +00:00)

[95] www-html from July 1994: ANNOUNCE: HaL Interactive HTML Validation Service <http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/www-html/1994Jul/0015>

最初のオンライン妥当性検証サービス。

[98] Chapter 2 (1998-05-20 00:22:16 +09:00 版) <http://www.w3.org/People/Raggett/book4/ch02.html> (名無しさん)

[99] HTML/history - ESW Wiki (2008-01-18 23:07:35 +09:00 版) <http://esw.w3.org/topic/HTML/history> (名無しさん)

[100] HTML/history - ESW Wiki (2008-01-18 23:07:35 +09:00 版) <http://esw.w3.org/topic/HTML/history> (名無しさん)

[101] HTML/history - ESW Wiki (2008-01-18 23:07:35 +09:00 版) <http://esw.w3.org/topic/HTML/history> (名無しさん)

[102] HTML/history - ESW Wiki ( 版) <http://esw.w3.org/topic/HTML/history> (名無しさん)

[103] IRC logs: freenode / #whatwg / 20091205 ( 版) <http://krijnhoetmer.nl/irc-logs/whatwg/20091205>

[104] HTML snapshots - WHATWG Wiki ( ( 版)) <http://wiki.whatwg.org/wiki/HTML_snapshots>

[105] HTML2 -- /MarkUp ( ( 版)) <http://www.w3.org/History/19921103-hypertext/hypertext/WWW/MarkUp/HTML2.html>